User Posts: Kyle Browning

If you live in California, you may wonder whether solar panels are worth the investment. And for a good reason — data from World Population Review indicates ...

Texas is among the sunniest states in the U.S. It stands to reason why many Texas residents wonder whether it's worth investing in solar panels. In short, ...

Solar farms - professor Giovanni Francia built the first one in Sant'llario, Italy in 1968. Since then, the world has gone on to build thousands ...

Interested in wind turbine vs. solar panels information? You've come to the right place. Whether you want to be at the forefront of renewable energy or watch ...

If you are interested in wind energy and thinking of buying a 20kw wind turbine, then it is important that you understand how this renewable source of energy ...

Solar panels come in all shapes and sizes. They can range from small, 1.1w portable modules to much larger 500W, 72-cell panels for commercial solar arrays. ...

The UV index was standardized in 1994 by the National Weather Service (NWS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). What is the UV index? ...

Solar panels for campervans are becoming more popular than ever, as crowds of adventurers seek sustainable solutions to power their RVs and vans on ...

How much does a commercial wind turbine cost? To begin, start by playing with the idea of how much 164 tons of steel, fiberglass, resin, ...

A workspace needs at least 8,000 to 10,000 lumens to be sufficiently lit and in my opinion, LED garage lights are the best technology out there to do ...

Growing hydroponic vegetables has many benefits. To us, one of the most important advantages is being able to minimize and control water usage. Good ...

Vertical hydroponic systems are the future of indoor home gardening. With these systems in place, you can expect better control of temperature, air ...

Browsing All Comments By: Kyle Browning
  1. Hi Aaron, thanks for your recommendation. We will consider your input in a future update of this article. In the meantime, your thoughts have been heard, and we are looking into it.

  2. Avatar
    Kyle Browning March 1, 2023 at 5:22 pm

    Hi Roshan, it really depends whereabouts in the UAE you are based?

  3. Avatar
    Kyle Browning March 1, 2023 at 9:32 am

    Hi Zaldy, this really depends on what appliances you aim to power and for how long. Let us know and we can assist you in sizing your battery storage.

  4. Hi Adam,

    This assumes a grid-tied operation. If you need your rig to mine 24 hours, you would need energy storage solutions.

  5. Hey Michael, this really depends on the power draw of your appliances. Could you share what each of your stated appliances wattage ratings are?

  6. Thanks for bringing that to our attention William, we have amended the article.

  7. Hi Prerak,

    This really depends on the Bitcoin miner you use, which one were you thinking of?

  8. Hi Mike, you can reach me on [email protected]

  9. Hello Chris, thanks for your comment/question, your system looks good but you’ll need to upgrade to a 24V or 48V system (battery and inverter) to power up to 2500W with a 5000W peak.

    It is all about the size of your wires (from the battery bank to inverter) and the max current they can carry. For a safe domestic use, wires carrying more than 150Amps continuously (Wire size: AWG0) are not advisable.

    With a 12V system, you are limited to 1500W continuous, the maximum current is 125Amps.

    With a 24V battery/inverter you’ll be able to reach 3000W continuous (125Amps), and with a 48V system up to 6000W, the same current 125Amps.

    In the end I would recommend this POWMR 3000W hybrid/off-grid inverter that I am currently using. It is a good entry/budget level all-in-one inverter. And it will have no problem for 2500W. Make sure to use AWG0 wires to connect your battery and inverter.

  10. Hi David, thanks for reaching out. This all depends on which type of battery you buy. Different battery technologies have different DoD’s.

    I would recommend checking out some of our other dedicated articles on batteries. We have quite a lot of information on the subject.

    You can find those articles here:

  11. Hi Deep,

    The array is not 4.8 kWh, it is 4.8 kW. (energy Vs power).

    A 4.8 kW solar panel array in California will produce roughly 7,629 kWh/Year.

    You may have confused energy with power?

  12. Hi Paul, this is correct. Thanks for pointing this out. I have amended the article. We will update the article at a later stage to include the ROI.

  13. Hi David, thanks for your insight.

    Please note, that we have updated the article accordingly.

    Recommendations are still the same. However, the revision benefited Tesla and updated the price point of SunPower.

  14. You are very welcome Prabath!

  15. Thanks Don, we are glad you found this article useful.

  16. Avatar
    Kyle Browning July 26, 2022 at 2:47 pm

    Yes, you are right. The LG battery supplies DC electricity and must be paired with a hybrid inverter.
    To be fair, the Powerwall (AC battery), if connected to a solar system, also needs an inverter, as solar panels produce DC. It could be a micro-inverter for each solar panel.

    In this article, we focused only on each product as a single battery.
    But included in a solar system, they both need inverters.
    For the LG, a 5kW hybrid inverter will do the job. Sol-Ark is a good choice. Their 5kW model is 5’000USD. That would add to the 8600$ of the RESU13, a total of 13600$. Then the LG becomes more expensive than the Powerwall.
    But the LG+inverter can directly accept solar panels, whereas the Powerwall will require an extra expense that will depend on the number of solar panels installed.

    Regarding your second question, if the Powerwall guarantees 37.8MWh, this is AC directly usable by our appliances. The LG guarantees 39MWh in DC. If the conversion efficiency of the LG inverter is 95%, that translates into 37.05MWh AC which is very similar to the Powerwall. Totally agree.
    However, the efficiency that LG loses with its DC to AC inverter, the Powerwall also loses with its micro inverters (Emphase micro-inverters are 96.5% efficient).

    In the end, if integrated with a solar system, both of their energy guarantees in AC are pretty similar, with LG maybe 1-2% higher.
    I hope this helps!

  17. Avatar
    Kyle Browning July 25, 2022 at 7:25 pm

    Hi Eliza,

    Wow, that’s incredibly expensive. Do you have any tax incentives in Austria?

  18. Avatar
    Kyle Browning July 25, 2022 at 5:25 pm

    Hey Anne Marie, thanks for reaching out to us, we are happy to assist you.

    Please could you share with us exactly how much electricity you consume each month? That would be in kWh. Also, your town in Mpumalanga, this way we can get accurate GHI data to advise you on your recommended system size.

  19. Hi, thanks for your thoughts on the matter.

    I’d like to take a moment to address a number of points you raised.

    But firstly for future reference, please could you provide verifiable sources to back up your claims; this will assist us and all our readers. 🙂

    In terms of recycling: The Wind Energy Technologies Office (WETO) is working with researchers across the industry, academia, and DOE national laboratories to focus on wind blade recycling and enable a circular economy for the entire wind turbine (Source).

    Wind turbines are designed to last 20 – 25 years (Source).

    In terms of the carbon payback period: Several wind turbine life-cycle assessments have been undertaken and are available online. An onshore wind turbine can be expected to repay this energy debt in between about six and nine months of operation.

    And lastly, as for there is no imminent danger brought on by Climate Change. Well, I urge you to read this, or if you are more into books, then this: The Sixth Extinction.

  20. Hey Rob, thanks for sharing your opinion.

    13.5 kWh alone may not power a home for very long, but a 13.5 kWh battery that is actively being recharged as you use it goes a much longer way.

    Additionally, remember that the size of your system is determined primarily by your energy consumption, but also your home’s location, and the amount of GHI it receives. You don’t mention how many peak sun hours you receive, but by the looks of it, you seem to have the perfect setup for your needs.

    Also if you are interested in how many Powerwalls you would need, you can check out our dedicated article here:

  21. Avatar
    Kyle Browning July 19, 2022 at 9:49 pm

    Thanks David, let us know if there is anything more you’d like to see in a future solar calculator update.

  22. Avatar
    Kyle Browning July 14, 2022 at 3:39 pm

    Hey Sandy!

    The best thing to do would be to email the manufacturer. Go check on their site and see if they supply any spares for their products. Chances are you may need to DIY it.

  23. Avatar
    Kyle Browning July 7, 2022 at 3:17 pm

    Hi Ben, that depends on the brand you go with.

    Most brands sell solar generators as a single unit, giving you the option to add solar panels to your purchase package. Just double-check your cart before paying.

    Which brand are you interested in?

  24. Hey Brandon, if you could share the total wattage rating of your fridge?

  25. Avatar
    Kyle Browning June 27, 2022 at 8:16 am

    Thanks for sharing your thoughts, Samuel. There is no doubt that both men left a long complex legacy behind.

  26. Just want to make sure I understand your needs correctly, you are wanting to recharge your trailer batteries, using solar or? Batteries require Direct Current. You only need an inverter to convert DC to AC.

  27. Avatar
    Kyle Browning June 20, 2022 at 8:29 pm

    You are very welcome Ron, we are glad you found this article useful.

  28. You are very welcome Justin.

    Let us know if you want us to cover any other topics in the future!

  29. Avatar
    Kyle Browning June 7, 2022 at 11:25 am

    Hey Jim, this tends to be quite relative and depends on your application. We tend to recommend smaller solar panels for RV/campervan installations as this allows the most “flexible” use of space. Perhaps you want to position your panels in a particular pattern that allows room for vent covers or rooftop storage.

  30. Avatar
    Kyle Browning June 7, 2022 at 11:19 am

    Hey Jim,

    Admittedly we did forget to mention that ampacity ratings differ between power transmission and residential applications.

    We added a table that is specific for residential (National Electric Code table) which reflects the 15 amps for 14-gauge copper wire.

    We always encourage feedback from our readers, so thanks for that!

  31. Avatar
    Kyle Browning June 6, 2022 at 6:31 pm

    Hi Kenny,

    So as it stands you want to run the following:

    Flat Screen TV: 100 watts (10 hours) – 1000 Wh
    Xbox: 170 watts (10 hours) – 1700 Wh
    Fan: 30 watts (8 hours) – 240 Wh
    Fridge: 50 watts (24 hours) – 1200 Wh
    LED Lights: 10 watts (5 hours) – 50 Wh
    Security Camera: 15 watts (15 hours) – 225 Wh

    Total watt hours usage per day: 4415 Wh
    Total watt hours usage per month: 132 kWh.

    Now we can use the formula provided: 132 (energy usage) / 156 (peak sun hours) = 0.846 x 1000 = 846 watts.

    This means you would need an 846-watt solar system to offset your energy usage.

    Please note, that this is a very rough calculation. other considerations such as inefficiencies have not been taken into consideration. Also, I have calculated your watt hour usage roughly based on the limited information you provided me.

    I hope this helps.

  32. Avatar
    Kyle Browning June 3, 2022 at 7:23 pm

    Hi Gareth,

    Thanks for reaching out to us. Yeah, load shedding can be quite an issue!

    Are you looking to install solar panels — why are you looking for an inverter? I will pop you an email to discuss things further.

  33. Avatar
    Kyle Browning June 2, 2022 at 1:07 pm

    Hi Oscar, please note we have now updated the article accordingly.

  34. Avatar
    Kyle Browning May 30, 2022 at 10:55 am

    Hey Colin, you are correct, thanks for pointing out that typo. We have rectified the units to read: kWh/kWp per day.

  35. Avatar
    Kyle Browning May 8, 2022 at 2:25 pm

    Hi Norma,

    If you could give me a list of all the appliances you would like to run, their wattages, and the amount of time you would like to run them for, I can give you a breakdown of what system size you will need. Also, where are you located currently?

    Feel free to take this over to the forum too:

  36. Avatar
    Kyle Browning May 4, 2022 at 5:13 pm

    Which part of the article are you referring to?

  37. Avatar
    Kyle Browning May 4, 2022 at 5:10 pm

    No, these examples do not include batteries. Energy storage would greatly increase the overall cost.

  38. Avatar
    Kyle Browning May 1, 2022 at 5:59 pm

    Hi Michael, we recommend contacting your local installer in order for them to quote you location-specific prices.

  39. Avatar
    Kyle Browning May 1, 2022 at 5:57 pm

    Hi Kurt,

    The temperature of the Earth down 20 or 30 feet is a relatively constant number throughout the year. Generally sitting between 50 and 60 degrees F. So no, the water would not freeze.

  40. Hi Ron,

    Alibaba is the place for you to buy this specific inverter. Most of the manufacturers are now open to single-unit orders. You can chat with the representative of the company on Alibaba, they will answer all technical questions about their inverters.

  41. You are correct Punit, we have already gotten feedback from Tesla. You can expect an updated article within the next week.

  42. Hi there,

    Thanks for sharing your thoughts/concerns.

    One such solution to the issue you mentioned is Smart charging, also known as V1G charging.

    This is a system where an EV and a charging device share the same data connection point. This allows you to intelligently manage exactly how your EV charges by connecting it to the grid. V1G charging makes optimal use of the energy that is available during certain periods of the day.

    Also, keep in mind that an EV battery can be used to store renewable energy during the day when production levels tend to be higher. In the evening, when most household consumption peaks, this energy can be discharged to relieve some pressure on the market.

    For utilities, this basically means that EVs offer the option for cheap energy storage, with no capital cost and relatively low operating costs. Not only can EV batteries be used to help stabilize the grid but EV owners will have the opportunity to earn money for this service.

    Today, smart charging is becoming even more “smart” with V2G technology now also being available.

    V2G technology allows charged power to be momentarily pushed back from your EVs battery back into the grid in order to alleviate and balance any variations in production/consumption.

    Lastly, keep in mind that the shift to renewables is a gradual phasing out process, with Nuclear perhaps playing a larger role than once thought.

    I recommend watching this educational video by Kurzgesagt to get a better idea of how Nuclear may be of assistance while shifting entirely to renewables.

  43. Hey Michael, thanks for the feedback. We’ll be releasing an upgraded version of our solar calculator next month and we’ll take your comment into consideration.

    Is there anything else you’d like to see in the calculator?

  44. Hey Saartjie,

    Thanks for reaching out to us!

    I recommend posting your comment on the Climatebiz Community, here you will have access to the Climatebiz experts.

    Go ahead and post your question as a new topic.

  45. Hey Paul, thanks for reaching out to us. We just launched the Climatebiz community, there you will have access to all our experts.

    We are trying to get all our converstations to happen there as the interface is more equipped for conversation flow.

    I recommended posting your questions as a new topic there. You can do so here:

  46. Avatar
    Kyle Browning April 8, 2022 at 9:04 am

    Hey Jo,

    One reason may be Tesla’s extensive service area.

    Where are you based?

    Feel free to join our Climatebiz Community to ask further questions there.

  47. Hi Ilyas,

    Thanks for reaching out.

    I recommend that you join the Climatebiz Community and ask your question there.

    We have just launched it and will be creating a category just for solar-powered crypto miners.

    You can post your question as a new topic here: and we will get your question answered soonest.

  48. Hi Andrew, I’m glad you enjoyed our article. Generally, people purchase batteries based on their power requirements. Ah stands for ampere-hour or amp-hour. An amp hour is simply a measure of how long a battery can provide one amp of power per hour.

    Therefore, a 50Ah battery will not last longer than a 100Ah battery.

    Batteries with higher capacity tend to cost more than those with less capacity. So, a 100Ah battery will always cost more than a 50Ah battery (assuming both have the same cell chemistry).

    With this in mind, it stands to reason why people opt for the battery capacity best suited for their power requirements. Why pay more for a larger battery when you don’t plan on using all its stored energy.

    I hope this clears things up for you Andrew?

    In this article we cover solar battery cost in detail. Here you can see that lower capacity batteries always cost less than batteries with higher capacity.

  49. We are glad you enjoyed our battery capacity resource Bhuvanesh.

  50. Dear Frank, thanks so much for your feedback. It’s fundamental for the improvement of our work. Would you be able to share your personal experiences to help the community also learn more?

    Regarding your specific comment, we try to back up all assertions with reputable sources. Although I can understand your frustration given the current global economy and supply chain issues, we too are feeling it. Any further, more specific feedback on any particular section would be welcome.

  51. You are very welcome Axel, do keep us updated on how the installation process goes.

  52. Hi Kevin, thanks for reaching out.

    Could you be a bit more specific as to what the label of your water pump says?

  53. Avatar
    Kyle Browning March 6, 2022 at 1:33 pm

    In principle, all solar panels should be compatible with any battery. However this should be done with caution. If you are going to handpick brands instead of availing bundles, you should be prepared to DIY.

    Also, I have second thoughts about LAVO ESS since it is a hydrogen battery technology. You might need a special inverter for this.

    Practically speaking, tesla is selling their solar panels as a bundle with powerwalls. You can choose to buy Tesla panels and pair it with other ESS but this will hurt your long-term relationship with your installer/service provider.

    Most times it is better to avail the most cost-effective bundle in the solar plus storage market.

  54. Thanks Daniel, we agree that this is a great up and coming trend.

  55. Hey Michael,

    Thanks for reaching out to Climatebiz!

    Currently, I don’t think there’s a way for producers to charge up to 25% less for an equally rated 12V battery. Reducing its components (the ones that oxidize, providing electrons) consequently decreases the battery’s capacity, since the capacity is directly proportional to the amount of oxidizing material (thus, electrons flowing) in a battery.

    Alternatively, replacing certain elements could help reduce costs. That’s what many producers are looking into lately, including Tesla. The company has been working on eliminating cobalt from its batteries since 2018. Cobalt is present in the cathode of lithium-ion technologies and is a major concern for the EV battery industry since its responsible for a large chunk of the price of batteries.

    With the growing demand for batteries, increased demand for cobalt results in high prices (

    A few candidates are already replacing cobalt in cathodes (nickel, for instance). Still, so far, no other material was able to offer the same energy density and the same durability as cobalt-based cathodes. (

    Last year, Tesla announced the company could already produce cobalt-free batteries, which would result in cheaper batteries (

    Moreover, replacing materials could be the key to reducing battery cost, but developing new battery technologies altogether could be the answer to this problem. For example, solid-state batteries promise to last much longer than current battery technologies while providing higher energy density and costing less. But so far, they haven’t reached the commercialization stages.

    In conclusion, it’s hard to say the change that will make batteries cheaper, but reducing its components is not it. Replacing expensive parts for cheaper ones is one option. Conversely, developing better alternatives for current battery technologies could also provide cheaper batteries that offer the same features (or, ideally, improved features).

  56. Thanks so much, not sure how that slipped by us. Nevertheless, we have updated our article accordingly.

  57. That is the purpose of energy storage systems such as the Tesla Powerwall and its alternatives.

    People buy batteries for two main reasons:
    1. They want to use solar energy later in the day when the sun is not available.
    2. They want a source of backup electricity during emergencies such as brownouts/blackouts/”clouding” (when clouds block the sunlight)

    That is why a lot of people consider hybrid solar systems.

    Note: A Hybrid solar system combines the concept of both grid-tie and off-grid systems; it’s a grid-tied type setup with the added energy storage component for backup purposes.

    In your case, it’s difficult to estimate how much electricity your utility will ration to your home each time a brownout occurs. Therefore, people typically get an energy storage system (ESS) that can support their essential appliances during a blackout (no power coming from the utility).

  58. Hey Günther, thanks for reaching out. This article is referring to homeowners living in the U.S., hence the costs are higher than the amount you mentioned.

  59. Thanks for sharing Brian. Sounds like you have one great setup at home!

  60. Hey Ken,

    Thanks for reaching out!

    The number provided is an average reference, you will need to calculate the number of solar panels needed based on your location and average mileage – You can do this using the formulas provided.

    And yes the battery would drain overnight.

    Hope this helps!

  61. Hello Crevasse, yes that is correct. Naturally, you will lose efficiency when converting AC to DC, likewise from DC to AC again. The amount though depends on the equipment you are using.

  62. Hey David, thanks for reaching out. Where exactly are you based? Feel free to email me at [email protected]

  63. Hey, Thomas thanks for reaching out to us.

    We will soon be releasing a section on our website focusing on passive housing. This, in unison with a ground source heat pump, may certainly decrease your energy bills, especially during winter.

    If you don’t mind me asking, what is the total kWh consumption of the ground source heat pump in winter (minus all your other household appliances)?

  64. Thanks for sharing Arthur, seems like you guys have a pretty nifty setup!

  65. You are very welcome Allen!

  66. You are very welcome Allen!

  67. You are very welcome Gerhard, feel free to let us know should you have any further questions 🙂

  68. Avatar
    Kyle Browning May 30, 2021 at 1:45 pm

    Hi Kevin, we are glad you enjoyed the article! 🙂

  69. I couldn’t agree more Ademola 🙂