How To Install Ground-Mounted Solar Panels (The 5 Step Process)

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Roof-top solar panels are the most common way to set up a solar system but do you know about this great alternative: ground-mounted solar panels?

Ground-mounted solar panels are easier to install and maintain, making solar energy accessible to the non-specialist at a lower cost.

This article will guide you step-by-step in the installation of your ground-mounted solar panels in a pure DIY fashion.  

If you’ve been wondering about the best design for a ground frame as well as how to build, install and connect your solar panels, check out the first part of the article. We’ve made it easy to understand and reproduce thanks to pictures and plans of an actual set-up.

Here are 5 steps for a DIY installation of ground-mounted solar panels:

  1. Select the best spot for ground-mounted solar panels
  2. Design and build your ground structure
  3. Mount your solar panels on the ground structure
  4. Connect your solar panels to your inverter
  5. Maintain your ground-mounted solar panels

If you want to know more about the cost, production capacity, and advantages of ground-mounted solar panels, then jump directly to the second part of the article.

Let’s begin with our installation guide.

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How To Install Ground-Mounted Solar Panels

5 steps to guide you through the installation of ground-mounted solar panels in your yard.

As a reference, let’s consider a solar system of 6 solar panels of 400W (2.4kW).

Recommended number of people: 2 to 3

Total installation time: 2 to 3 days (including the building of the ground structure and solar frame)

Step 1: Select The Best Spot For Ground-Mounted Solar Panels

Key Takeaways:
– The sunniest spot (full sun)
– No tree or building shading from 10 am to 3 pm
– Facing South (in Northern Hemisphere) – facing North (in Northern Hemisphere)
– Clear the grounds according to the area covered by your solar panels – give yourself an additional 20% of extra space
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This is the most important preliminary step: choose the best spot in your garden to maximize your solar production. As mentioned in a previous article, solar panels love direct sunshine and hate shading, even partial.

Shaded solar panels can produce 10 times less energy than under full exposure!

Therefore, find the sunniest place in your garden – specifically from 10 am to 3 pm when solar production is at its peak.

Next, ensure that your sport has sufficient space for your ground structure.

To do so:

  • Calculate the total surface of your solar panel array
  • Add 20% extra space to allow movement around your structure

As an example, a 400W solar panel roughly covers an area of 2 sqm or 21.5sq.ft.

Therefore, 6 solar panels cover a total of 12 sqm or 129sq.ft

The total area needed to install a ground structure for six 400W solar panels is around 15sqm or 155sq.ft (including 20% extra space).

Step 2: Design And Build Your Ground Structure

Key takeaways:
– Concrete foundations
– GI pipe or wood lumber structure
– Insecticide wood treatment and outdoor paint/varnish

Now that you have chosen the best place on your property, you are ready to design and build the structure to support your solar panels.

What Material Do I Need For A Solar Panel Ground Structure?

Keep in mind that your solar panels will last for at least 25 years. Ideally, your structure should also last that long.

The recommended material for your structure and frame is GI (galvanized iron) pipes, that can be assembled by welding.

If your budget is limited or if you don’t have a welding machine, you can use wood lumbers instead.

Medium-hard wood is a good option, it needs to be treated against termites and fungus and coated with varnish or paint for better preservation.

In the instance of a 6 x 400W solar panel installation, 25 pieces of 2in x 3in x 8ft coconut lumbers were used together with 4 bags of cement, and an adequate amount of sand and gravel for the concrete mix.

How Do I Build A Ground Structure For Solar Panels?

It is recommended that you build a structure tall enough for you to walk underneath it – 6 to 7 feet high is a good option. The following simplified construction plan applies to the 6 x 400-watt solar panel installation plan.

Have a look at the final result:

Side view

Front view

Top view

Real-life scenario:

Ground-Mounted Solar Panels
Final wooden structure for ground-mounted solar panels

Let’s start by digging the foundations:

  1. Dig the foundations for 10 posts, holes of 1ft*1ft*1t are good enough. Install your wood post (straight) and pour the concrete.
Ground-Mounted Solar Panels
Top view – 10 wood posts

Don’t forget that your solar panels won’t lay flat, they will be slightly tilted to receive more sunlight, as pictured below. Therefore, your posts won’t have the same length. To determine your ideal tilting angle, check the Global Solar Atlas by entering your location.

Ground-Mounted Solar Panels
Tilting angle of your frame from flat grounds (side view)

2. Start framing: using nails or wood screws, connect the top of all the wood posts with the lumbers as depicted below

Ground-Mounted Solar Panels
Frame top-view

3. Add extra lumber between each post:

Ground-Mounted Solar Panels
Top-view

4. Reinforce your structure with braces between the posts:

Ground-Mounted Solar Panels
Side view
Ground-Mounted Solar Panels
Front view

5. Lastly, protect the wood against termites and fungus with borax.

On top of that, you can apply varnish or waterproof paint as you wish. Your frame is now ready to welcome your solar panels.

Step 3: Mount Your Solar Panels On The Ground Structure

Key takeaways:
– Solar panels on aluminum rails
– Get aluminum mounting brackets and clamps
– Quick and easy installation (30 min for 6 panels)

Your solar panels are mounted on top of 2 aluminum rails. Follow the steps below to install the railings and get them ready to welcome your panels.

To install your solar panels on top of your ground structure, you will need:

The total cost of the accessories to install 6 x 400W solar panels should be around $150.

  1. Screw the L-shape mounting brackets on top of your frame, make sure they are perfectly aligned.
Ground-Mounted Solar panel contruction
Ground-Mounted Solar panel contruction

2. Slide the aluminum rails in the mounting brackets and tighten them with a screwdriver. Your frame should look like this:

Ground-Mounted Solar panel framing
Ground-Mounted Solar panel contruction

Let’s now put the solar panels in place.

3. Slide in the first two end-clamps.

4. Bring the first panel on top of the railing and push it to the end-clamps.

5. Tighten the end-clamps.

Bring in the first panel
Tighten and adjust the end-clamps

6. Slide in the first two mid-clamps.

7. Bring the second panel and tighten the mid-clamps.

Second solar panel
Mid-clamps

8. Repeat the operation until your last panel is installed.

9. Slide in the end-clamp and tighten.

Last end-clamps
Final result

The whole operation is very easy and takes around 20 to 30 min for 6 solar panels with the help of 3 people.

Step 4: Connect Your Solar Panels To Your Inverter

Key takeaways:
– Output of solar panels: Positive (+) and Negative (-) wires
– MC4 male and female solar connectors
– Solar cable extension to reach the inverter
– Grounding lug to ground your solar array

Let’s now start the electrical connection of your solar panels.

Don’t worry, standard connectors make this part very easy.

Solar panels produce DC electricity, therefore they have two output wires: the positive (+) and the negative (-). You will find them at the back of your panel, coming out of a small black box.

Connect the solar panels in series, which means that the positive wire of one panel is connected to the negative wire of the other one.

Connecting solar panels in series adds up their voltage while the output current (Amps) remains the same.

Solar panels use dedicated electrical connectors called MC4 or solar connectors.

The MC4 female connector is generally the positive (+) and the MC4 male connector, the negative (-)

MC4 connectors

Solar panels connected in series

Simply clip the male and female connectors together. The whole operation won’t take you more than 5 minutes.

Now that your solar panels are connected in series, you are left with two wires ending with male and female MC4 connectors.

You need a solar extension cable with female and male MC4 connectors.

Simply connect your two solar cables to the extension and plug the extension in your inverter.

Again, be sure to pay attention to the polarity (+) and (-).

Lastly, you have to ground your solar array to prevent damage from lightning. For that, get a grounding lug and a bare large copper or aluminum wire. Mount the grounding lug on your aluminum frame together with the wire. Bring the wire into the ground around 1ft deep.

Grounding lug with its aluminum wire

This is it! You are now producing your own electricity from the sun.

Step 5: Maintain Your Ground-Mounted Solar Panels

Solar panels are extremely robust. They will last at least 25 years and only require light maintenance such as gentle cleaning from time to time, to keep them at their highest production level.

It is also recommended that you inspect your solar frame every six months to assess its structural integrity.


Are Ground-Mounted Solar Panels Cheaper?

Ground-mounted solar panels cost the same as rooftop solar panels. If set up by a professional, the installation cost is lower than traditional rooftop panels but building the ground frame balances the costs.

The maintenance costs of ground-mounted solar panels are low as you won’t need a professional to climb on your roof to clean the panels. They are easily accessible and you can do this operation by yourself.


Do Ground-Mounted Solar Panels Need Special Planning Permission?

Usually, all ground-mounted solar panels need an electrical permit and might also require a building permit depending on the height of the structure or total surface covered.

In the UK, you need planning permission if your solar array covers more than 9sqm.

In the US, rules differ from one state to another. For example, in San Diego, California, all solar installations (including ground-mounted) need an electrical permit. However, building permits are only required for ground structures higher than 5 feet.


How Much Space Do Ground-Mounted Solar Panels Take Up?

1 kW of ground-mounted solar panels takes around 5 sq.m or 54 sq. ft.

To estimate the space of your ground-mounted solar panels:

  • Check the actual size of your solar panel and calculate its total surface. A 400W solar panel covers roughly 2sqm or 21.5sqft.
  • Allow an extra 20% space to move easily around the structure.

Are Ground-Mounted Solar Panels More Efficient?

Ground-mounted solar panels are more efficient than roof-top solar panels as they generally produce more solar energy.

This is mainly due to better air circulation that cools down the panels (cooler panels lead to higher solar production), as well as an optimized tilting angle and orientation as you are not dependent on your roof orientation and slope.


What Are The Pros & Cons Of Ground Mounted Solar Panels?

Below are the positives and negatives of ground-mounted solar panels:

Pros
  • Safer than rooftop (no fire risk in your house)
  • Produce more solar energy
  • Easy to install and maintain
  • Space below the ground structure can be used
Cons
  • Take space in your yard
  • Dustier (closer to the ground)
  • Need longer cables (more expenses) if far from the inverter
  • Need a very sunny spot with no shading

Final Thoughts

Ground-mounted solar panels are highly recommended – they are fast to install, maintenance is not a burden, and they produce more energy than traditional rooftop panels.

Follow this guide and with the help of 3 people, it will only take you 3 days to install six 400W solar panels (2.4kW), including the ground structure.

To conclude, remember that the space below the panels is still usable. For example, in France, they developed the concept of agrivoltaics, which combines vineyards with solar energy production. The result shows that the crop benefits from partial shading and the farmers receive an extra income through their solar energy production.

If you have a sunny place on your property, don’t hesitate and go for ground-mounted solar panels.

Romain Metaye, PhD

Dr Metaye has a PhD in chemistry from Ecole Polytechnique, France. He is a renewable energy expert with more than 10 years of experience within the research world. During his career, he supervised more than 150 projects on clean energy. Off-grid smart systems, solar energy, battery and the hydrogen economy are among his specialties.

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